Modeling the Human Figure
There are many approaches to modeling the human. Most of these methods were designed to accomplish specific aims such as easier sculpting of facial features, better facial animation, easier texturing, and so on. Of all these techniques subdivision or subpatch modeling has the scope to achieve all the necessary objectives for modeling a realistic human and its subsequent goals of lifelike movements and facial expressions.
This chapter outlines a method for modeling a human female. If your desire is to model a male, then you can refer to my other book 3D Human Modeling and Animation, 2nd Ed. (John Wiley and Sons Publishers).
Although most of human modeling will be examined in this chapter, the following chapter 7 will cover details such as hair, eyes, teeth, and so on. It is recommended that you work from photographs and also photographic templates that show front, side, back, and perhaps top views of the figure.
In the previous chapter 2 you learned how to model a figure with clothes. This time the human will be undraped so as to make one more aware of human anatomy. During the greatest ages of art, the nude inspired the greatest art works. Even when it no longer held sway over art movements, it still retained its importance in the academic training of artists.
The Greeks in the fifth century taught us that the nude is not just a subject to be studied and imitated but an art form in itself. Their knowledge gave us an understanding of the actions and structural characteristics found in the nude. Artists who painted and sculpted the nude learned to convey weight, rhythm, mass, line, value, texture, and tension.
To be successful in depicting the human body one needs to have an understanding of anatomy. Perceiving the nude means understanding it. Without any knowledge of anatomy, it is impossi- ble to recognize the inherent form of the nude.
Anatomy for the artist does not imply a doctor's understanding of the body. Internal organs, blood vessels, muscles, and bones that are not visible at or below the skin surface are not a concern to the 3D modeler.
The 3D animator should have knowledge of the skeletal/muscular system and the manner in which it works as a mechanical device. Without this understanding it is very difficult to portray the human character in its various attitudes and movements.
There are many excellent books on human anatomy for artists. This book does not pretend to be one of them. The study of anatomy requires an entire book devoted to the subject. Anyone who is serious about studying 3D human modeling and animation should have a collection of anatomy books.
The various steps in this chapter that describe the manner in which to model the figure also contain some illustrations of human anatomy. These pertain to the specific modeling task at hand. The anatomy illustrations are only meant as a visual guide to help you see what lies below the surface of the part that will be modeled. They do not identify their individual anatomical details with medical names. If you wish to know the designations of different bones and muscles, they can be found in anatomy textbooks or online.
Even though males and females have their differences, they are structurally homological to each other. Fat deposits and variations in their skeletons account for the greatest deviations.
The greater quantity of fat in the female makes her appear smooth and flowing. Aside from sexual differences, she is normally smaller except in the hips.
The difference in the skeletal structure makes the female slighter in proportion. Her head is smaller and positioned relatively higher than the male. The brow ridges, unlike the male are nearly absent adding to the forehead's smoother and more rounded appearance. The width of the shoulders to that of the trunk is smaller. In fact, it is the opposite to the male whose shoulders are wider than the hips. The thyroid cartilage (Adam's Apple) is flat compared to the prominent one in the male.
The trunk of the female in contrast to the male has a shorter rib cage with the outwardly visible breasts. The female pelvis is shorter but wider and deeper and leans forward. At the base of the spine, the sacrum is broader and inclines behind to form a full triangle. The two dimples of this triangle are clearly visible. Due to a wider pelvis and fat deposits, the female is broader at the hips. The side between the ribs and hipbone is longer owing to the female's shorter rib cage and pelvis. The buttocks extend to a lower level than the male. The female also has a smoother more rounded abdomen with a deeper navel.
The female upper arm is shorter resulting in a higher location of the elbow. When the arms are resting at the sides of the body, the finger tips extend to a higher point at the thigh. The wrist and hand are smaller.
The wider hipbones separate the legs in their pelvic sockets to a greater degree. This makes the legs slant more toward the knees. The knees are fleshier but the kneecaps and their ligaments are less obvious. The calves located below the knees are lower on the female. The feet are smaller.
Artists throughout the ages have tried to calculate the average size of a human. Despite all that, we still do not know the normal scale of the figure. Classic Greek and Renaissance bodies were 8 heads tall. Mannerists such as El Greco and Pontormo painted long figures measuring 9 heads or more.
The French anatomist Richer was the first to formulate that the traditional measurement of the average human was about seven and one-half skull-lengths. Although in real life a figure of that height would seem well proportioned, on a 2D sur- face the body appears much broader and stockier. To remedy this, artists have found that when portraying the nude as 8 heads tall, the figure appears more slender and graceful.
One of the more difficult tasks for computer artists is to model objects in the right proportions. Therefore, in order to simplify your work and help you model more accurately, it is recommended that you take digital pictures of a nude figure. It is also advisable to take close-up views of the head, hands, and feet. Perhaps someone will create an online repository of assorted nude figures in their various poses. As more artists contribute to the site, these should serve as an invaluable aid to 3D modelers.
Modeling the Head
Before starting to model the face, it is recommended that you study the various muscles and their purpose. While reading about these muscles, you may want to use a hand-held mirror to observe their effects on various expressions.
Since the muscles of the head are thin and flat, it is the shape of the skull that dictates the overall form of the head. Figure 6-1 illustrates various views of the skull. Visualizing the skull beneath the head makes it easier to see their respective masses that shape the face.
The Muscles of the Head
It is important to note that no skeletal muscle acts on its own. When one muscle contracts or draws together its fibers, it activates other, opposing muscles, which in turn, modify the action of the original contracting muscle. Normally, the head is broken up into three sets of muscles. Most of these are small, thin, or deeply embedded in fatty tissue. A few of the muscles shown in Figure 6-2 warrant special attention. They play an important role in facial expressions and help define the contours of the face.
The Masseter and the Temporalis control movement of the jaw. These muscles are responsible for the closing and biting movements of the mandible. The muscles that open the jaw are deepseated inside the neck and are not readily visible.
The Frontalis is a broad, flat muscle located in the forehead. It wrinkles the brow horizontally and raises the eyebrows. It contributes to an angry or surprised look.
The Corrugator is a small muscle attached to the bridge of the nose. It dramatically affects the surface of the forehead when one frowns or expresses grief. By pulling the inner ends of the eyebrows together, it forces vertical wrinkles of the brow.
Circling the mouth is the Orbicularis Oris. This elliptical muscle has the unique characteristic of not being attached to any bones. Instead, it is connected to a number of small muscles pointing toward the mouth. It curls and tightens the lips. The creases that result from contracting this muscle radiate from the lips and can often be seen in the elderly.
The Orbicularis Oculi is another circular muscle circumscribing the eye. Its contractions create wrinkles at the corners of the eyes (crow's feet). Its primary function is to close the eyelids for expressions like squinting.
The Zygomatic Major angles from the side to the front of the face at the corners of the mouth. Its function is the energetic upward traction at the corners of the mouth. It takes fewer muscles to smile than it does to frown.
Located at the side of the nose are the three branches of the Quadratus Labii Superioris. Their function is to raise the upper lip for sneering.
The Triangularis and Depressor Labii Inferioris are responsible for the downward pull of the mouth and lips.
The Mentalis moves the skin of the chin and pushes up the lower lip.
Modeling the Head Steps
Step 1. (Figure 6-3). After loading your photo templates of the head, create a box that is similar in size to your background images.
Step 2. (Figure 6-3). Divide the cube into smaller sections and bevel extrude the neck part down.
Step 3. (Figure 6-3). At the 0 x axis split the head down the middle and delete one half of it. In subpatch or subdivision mode refine the shape of the half head.
Step 4. (Figure 6-3). Split the half head into more sections and use the extra points to further refine the head.
Step 5. (Figure 6-4). The illustration indicates the region where the mouth will be modeled. This darker polygon is where the mouth will be split and beveled.
Step 6. (Figure 6-4). Split the polygons and move points so that the configuration looks similar to the darker polygons in the illustration.
Step 7. (Figure 6-4). Merge the two polygons of the upper and lower lip so that the one polygon can be beveled in the next step.
Step 8. (Figure 6-4). Bevel out the mouth a little.
Step 9. (Figure 6-4). Bevel in the mouth to about the same plane as the polygons of the front face.
Step 10. (Figure 6-4). Bevel in the first part of the inside of the mouth.
Fig. 6-5 Steps 11-16. 11). Beveling the inside of the mouth once again. 12). A few more bevels complete the inside of the mouth. 13). Shaping the inside of the mouth and splitting the back polygons. 14). Refining the half lips. 15). Making the first bevel for the eyesocket. 10). Splitting the eye area in half.
Step 11. (Figure 6-5). Bevel in the second part of the inside mouth area.
Step 12. (Figure 6-5). Make several more bevels to complete the inside of the mouth.
Step 13. (Figure 6-5). Shape the inside mouth part so that it is rounder. If the back polygon has more than 4 sides then split it up into 3 or 4-sided polygons. Delete any inside mouth polygons that were created along the 0 x axis from beveling. The half inside mouth should be an open form.
Step 14. (Figure 6-5). Fine-tune the shape of the lips. The half mouth is now nearly complete.
Step 15. (Figure 6-5). Begin the eyesocket by selecting the polygon in that area and beveling it in once.
Step 16. (Figure 6-5). Divide the middle of the eyesocket and move points to give it a more almond-like shape.
Fig. 6-6 Steps 17-22. 17). Welding points at both corners of the eyesocket and merging the 2 half polygons (dark part). 18). Beveling in slightly to add a line around the opening. 19). Beveling in once more to begin the eyesocket. 20). Pushing and pulling points and splitting polygons to improve the eye opening. 21). Dividing and moving points at the cor- ner of the eye. 22). Beveling the eyesocket in several more times.
Step 17. (Figure 6-6). Weld the two points at both corners of the eye opening. Merge the inside polygon (dark area in the illustration).
Step 18. (Figure 6-6). Bevel the inside polygon inward a little so that you have an extra line around the eye opening (dark part).
Step 19. (Figure 6-6). Bevel the eye opening polygon in once again.
Step 20. (Figure 6-6). Split the polygons around the eye opening and refine its shape.
Step 21. (Figure 6-6). The corner of the eye (dark part) should now be split and shaped. This is the area where the pink membrane will be seen.
Step 22. (Figure 6-6). Continue work on the eyesocket by beveling it in a couple more times.
Step 23. (Figure 6-7). Bevel the eyesocket in once again. If necessary split the back polygon into 3 and 4-sided polygons. Shape the eyesocket to make it round enough to accommodate the eyeball which will be modeled in the next chapter.
Step 24. (Figure 6-7). Divide the polygons above the eye opening (dark area of the illustration). The resulting line will form the eyelid.
Step 25. (Figure 6-7). Drag the points above the dark part down and forward a little. Move the vertices of the top of the dark area back and up somewhat. This should form the upper eyelid.
Step 26. (Figure 6-7). Make the crease below the eye opening by splitting polygons. Move the points underneath the eye opening to create a line there. If your model has bags under the eyes you can easily shape one with the two parallel lines.
Step 27. (Figure 6-7). The polygons below the chin should be split. Move the resulting points to improve the chin area.
Step 28. (Figure 6-7). Now it is time to begin polishing the shape of the head. This means that polygons in certain areas will have to be split into smaller ones and some will have to be merged. Points will also be moved. If your software has the ability to spin quads, then use this option to find the best configuration for the different polygons. The dark parts in the illustrations indicate where you will have to split and merge polygons. Notice the change in polygons between steps 28a and steps 28b.Â Â
Step 29. (Figure 6-8). The polygons in the forehead region are too large so they should now be divided into smaller ones.
Step 30. (Figure 6-8). The middle section on the side of the head running through the ear part is divided all the way down to the bottom of the neck.
Step 31. (Figure 6-8). The polygons where the ear will be modeled are too large so they should now be split into sections like those shown as darker values.
Step 32. (Figure 6-8). The illustration indicates the location where more polygons are split down and across the base of the chin.
Step 33. (Figure 6-8). Move points around the location for the ear so that you have a rough shape of its outline. You should have 9 points outlining the ear. Merge the polygons where the ear will go. Continue moving points around this polygon until you have a shape similar to the white area of the illustration.
Step 34. (Figure 6-8). Split and move points on the polygons so they look similar to the dark area in the illustration where the nose will be modeled. Merge the 3 polygons into one.
Step 35. (Figure 6-9). Select the merged nose polygon and bevel it outward to make the general shape of the nose.
Step 36. (Figure 6-9). Divide the nose polygon into 4-sided ones. Move points to shape the nose. A more detailed nose will be
modeled after the next few steps which involve refining parts of the face.
Step 37. (Figure 6-9). Use the dark areas of the illustration as a guide for splitting polygons underneath the nose.
Step 38. (Figure 6-9). Divide polygons on the cheek area.
Step 39. (Figure 6-9). Split more polygons next to the nose.
Step 40. (Figure 6-9). Divide polygons along the lower half of the nose and the cheek.
Step 41. (Figure 6-9). Make a line along the side of the nose next to the nose wing by dividing poly- gons. Pull and push points to make the indentation that follows the edge of the nose wing.
Step 42. (Figure 6-9). Refine the side of the face (dark area) by further splitting polygons, rearranging them, and moving points.
Step 43. (Figure 6-10). Divide the polygons at the bottom of the nose so that you have one that can be beveled up to make the nostril (dark polygon in the illustration).
Step 44. (Figure 6-10). Bevel the nostril polygon inward a little to form the outer edge of the nostril.
Step 45. (Figure 6-10). Bevel the polygon up into the nose to make the first inside section of the nostril.
Step 46. (Figure 6-10). Bevel the nostril polygon up once more to complete the nostril. Move points to refine the nostril's shape. Notice the other inside views of the eyesocket and inner mouth forms.
Step 47. (Figure 6-10). Follow the illustration to make a line at the lower half of the nose. Pull and push points closer to each other to make the upper line of the nose wing more distinct.
Step 48. (Figure 6-10). Refine the shape of the nose at the top by splitting polygons and moving points. Notice the nose wing now has a distinct shape.
Step 49. (Figure 6-10). Use a set value to move all the points at the center seam to the 0 x axis. This is important if you don't want to have holes and creases along the center of the face after mirror duplicating it. Check to make sure that there are no middle polygons for the inside mouth and eyesocket. When the face is mirrored there should be a hollow for these without polygons dividing them in half. These kind of polygons are an annoyance since they pull on the outer ones creating unsightly creases. Check the nostril to make sure that you did not move any of its points to the 0 x axis.
Step 57. (Figure 6-12). Model the small dimple at the top of the inside ear after splitting some of the polygons.
Step 58. (Figure 6-12). Sculpt the ear flap after dividing polygons. Make the transition between the ear and the side of the head smooth. It should appear seamless.
Step 59. (Figure 6-12). Continue modeling the axis. Mirror duplicate the half head and make sure the points are merged at the center seam. If needed, with Symmetry on finish the head by moving points.
Modeling the Torso
The chest is built around the bony structure of the ribs, spine, shoulder blades, collarbone, and breastbone (Figure 6-13). These bones support the muscles and protect the internal organs. In its most basic form, the chest is cone shaped. Twelve ribs on each side form the walls of the upper torso. Each rib fastens to the spine, and the top nine are also attached to the breastbone in front. The upper torso bones greatly influence the muscles. These bones will often show on the surface and affect the outside structure. Modeling the chest incorporates this bony framework. The collarbone and shoulder blades define the top shape of the chest and make it seem wider than it is. The movement of the shoulder bones appears significantly noticeable under the skin. The spinal column is discernible in the center of the back. The breastbone forms a flat downward wedge in the middle of the chest. The lower part of the ribs is often visible along the forward sides of the chest.
The pelvic area contains the hipbone which influences the pattern of the muscles, hence determining the shape of the lower abdomen. On the sides you can usually feel and see the upper contour of the pelvis. All the actions that the human body is capable of originate in the back of the lower torso. From the hips and pelvis, these movements are transmitted up and down the entire body.
The Muscles of the Torso
The visible muscles of the front neck start behind the ears, angle toward the center of the breastbone and attach to the collarbone (Figure 6-14). The back of the neck has a large triangle-shaped muscle named the trapezius. It supports the weight of the head in the back.
The chest muscles proceed outward toward the arms to form the front wall of the armpit (Figure 6-15). The trapezius muscle that originates at the base of the skull radiates across the back of the neck toward the shoulders and down where it converges in the middle of the back.
It is interesting to note that muscles do not end at the joints. Rather, they cross over them to attach to bones on the other side. Mobility would be impossible if the muscles did not cross over joints. Since the muscles become thinner at the joints, beginners often think muscles end there. So the tendency is to draw, sculpt, or model the figure as if it was made up of separate sections. Sometimes this is called the "sausage-link syndrome".
A vertical central groove divides the front part of the torso. It originates at the pit of the neck and ends at the navel. To the artist it is useful for placing the masses of the chest.
When the arms are raised, the abdominal or thoracic arch becomes a highly visible form below the rib cage. It almost acts as a line separating the upper torso from the lower one. The upper part of the torso is more bony in appearance while the lower torso has a fleshier look. The waist is high on the female and the buttocks form a butterfly shape.
Modeling the Torso Steps
Step 1 (Figure 6-16). At the base of the neck, select the polygon or create one first from the points there. Bevel it down to the groin area.
Step 2 (Figure 6-16). With Symmetry on, make the torso wider.
Step 3 (Figure 6-16). Slice across polygons to divide them. Move the extra points to create rough shape of the torso.
Step 4 (Figure 6-16). Split polygons on the torso again and model the curves of the back and sides.
Step 5 (Figure 6-16). At this point you can delete half the torso along the 0 x axis. You should find it easier to just work on one half and later mirror duplicate it. The illustrations show both halves so they can be seen in relationship to each other. Divide polygons at the front of the neck and upper torso. Push/pull points to shape the neck and collarbone.
Step 6 (Figure 6-16). Model the shoulder blades after splitting polygons.
Step 7 (Figure 6-16). Merge the polygons at the breast and arrange the points to form a round shape. Bevel extrude this polygon.
Step 8 (Figure 6-16). Bevel out again so that the polygon becomes smaller where the nipple begins. Remember that the breasts point outward and the nipples up.
Step 9 (Figure 6-16). Bevel the nipple out and in about 4 times. Weld the points at the tip. Refine the shape of the breast. You may need to mirror the torso just to see the relative distance between the two breasts. Of course their shape varies a great deal and should be proportional to the size of your model.
Step 10 (Figure 6-16). Split and model the polygons of the lower ribs and navel.
Step 11 (Figure 6-17). The front of the lower section of the torso should now be split into smaller polygons. Push and pull points to make the shape of the hips, the plateau of the navel and abdomen which are mostly covered with fat, the pubic arch, and the slight hollow where the upper legs join the torso.
Step 12 (Figure 6-17). Model the back of the lower torso. Divide polygons and move points to shape the buttock and the dimple at the pelvic crest. After making sure that the points at the seam are on the 0 x axis. Mirror duplicate the half torso. The points along the 0 x axis and base of the neck should merge. With Symmetry on continue shaping the buttocks. You need to have both halves of the torso visible in order to model this part correctly.
Figures 6-18 and 6-19 show the finished torso in low polygon and subdivision mode.
Modeling the Arms
The most maneuverable part of the body is the arm. The combined movements of the shoulder girdle, hand, and fingers create an almost unlimited mobility.
The Bones of the Arm
The arm has a similar combination of bones to the leg; one on top and two on the bottom (Figure 6- 20). The most common places where the skeleton of the arm becomes visible on the skin surface are at the top of the arm bone where it meets the collarbone, elbow, wrist joint, and the knuckles.
Unlike the legs, the arms are not built to support the body. Therefore, their bones are slender and their joints are capable of the widest range of motions possible. The ball and socket joint at the shoulder gives the arm the potential to rotate in any direction. The hinge joint at the elbow revolves the lower arm forward. Another hinge joint at the wrist rotates the hand in any direction. One of the forearms can cross the other allowing the hand even greater mobility.
The Muscles of the Arm
Fig. 6-21 Views of the arm muscles.
Four main groups form the arm muscles. Two of these are in the upper arm. They control the hinge joint of the elbow. When the arm hangs at the side they can be seen at the front and back (Figure 6- 21).
Two muscles of the top front group connect to the forearm and control its forward rotation. The back group of muscles appear as one when the arm is in a relaxed state.
The two groups of forearm muscles operate the wrist joint. Their actions are very intricate because they also twist the forearm and move the fingers.
The muscles in the hands do not influence the shape of the fingers and thumb as much as the skeleton does. Therefore, when modeling the hand, it is important to pay attention to its skeletal form.
Modeling the Arm Steps
Step 1 (Figure 6-22). It will be easier if you concentrate on modeling only one arm and then later mirror duplicate it to attach to the opposite side of the body. Find the group of polygons on the side of the torso from which the arm will be bevel extruded. Merge these into one and make the first bevel that forms the shoulder.
Step 2 (Figure 6-22). Bevel the arm polygon all the way to the wrist.
Step 3 (Figure 6-22). Slice in a vertical direction to split the arm up into smaller sections of polygons. Be sure to split the polygons across the elbow joint and once above and below it. Begin to shape the arm by pushing and pulling points.
Step 4 (Figure 6-22). Refine the arm by continuing to move points and splitting polygons where necessary. Add details such as the prominent bones at the elbow and wrist. Make the armpit and shoulder muscle more defined.
Step 5 (Figure 6-22). Mirror duplicate the finished arm and attach it to the other side of the figure.
Modeling the Hand Steps
Step 1 (Figure 6-23). As with the arm, you can con- centrate on modeling only one hand and then mirroring it so that it can be attached to the other arm. Select the polygon at the wrist and bevel it out for the length of the hand but not the fingers.
Step 2 (Figure 6-23). Divide the end of the hand polygon into four. Split across the hand so that you do not have any polygons with more than 4 sides.
Step 3 (Figure 6-23). Select the 4 polygons at the end of the hand and bevel them out for the length of the fingers.
Step 4 (Figure 6-23). Bevel out the thumb. Divide the fingers and thumb polygons by slicing across their joints. Be sure to also slice polygons where the fingernails begin.
Step 5 (Figure 6-23). Follow the steps in the illustration to model a fingernail. The top polygon is beveled down and made slightly smaller. It is then beveled up and increased in size. Slice across the middle of the nail polygon and finger tip. This will keep the nail from ballooning out in subdivi- sion mode. Improve the shape of the nail.
Step 6 (Figure 6-23). Continue modeling the rest of the nails or attach copies of the first one to the other fingers and thumb. Vary the nail according to the size and shape of the other digits.
Fig. 6-24 Steps 7 to 11. 7). Splitting the fingers and thumb across the top and pulling those point up to make the thumb and fingers more round. 8). Dividing polygons at the knuckles and pulling/pushing points. 9). Modeling the crease marks of the fin- ger and thumb joints. 10). Splitting polygons and moving points to make the major lines of the palm. 11). Bending the fingers into their more relaxed state. Mirror duplicating the hand and attaching it to the other arm
Step 7 (Figure 6-24). The fingers and thumb are still somewhat boxy due to them only having 4 polygons around each. Divide the fingers, thumb, hand across the top of their lengths. The white lines in the illustration indicates the location of these. The points on these new lines are then moved up slightly.
Step 8 (Figure 6-24). The white lines on the illustration shows where you should now split polygons to make the knuckles. Move the center point of each up a little.
Step 9 (Figure 6-24). The dark lines in the illus- tration display the location of the crease lines on the fingers and thumb. After splitting polygons in parallel lines like these, move the points of every other one down a little to form slight depressions.
Step 10 (Figure 6-24). Model the major creases on the palm by creating parallel lines (white lines in the illustration). Pull and push points until you get the slight concavities.
Step 11 (Figure 6-24). Bend the fingers and thumb into their more natural relaxed poses. Mirror duplicate the hand and attach it to the other arm.
Modeling the Legs
Three basic parts make up the leg. These are the thigh (upper leg), lower leg, and foot. Even though the bones of the pelvic girdle are considered part of the torso, the muscles of the hip are usually described along with those of the leg.
The Bones of the Leg
Artists should be aware of the key areas where the bones of the leg are visible (Figure 6-25). These are the kneecap, shinbone, the upper part of the calf bone (next to the knee), the lower part of the calf bone (outer ankle), and the lower part of the shin bone (inner ankle).
The leg bones are somewhat alike to the arm bones in that both have one on top and two at the bottom as well as similar joints. By contrast the leg bones are heavier and stronger. This is due to their weight bearing function and design for mobility. The leg joints are not as versatile as those of the arm.
The Muscles of the Leg
Unlike the arms, the leg muscles are not as well defined but they give the leg its total shape (Figure 6-26). The longest muscle in the body starts at the side of the hip and runs in a sweeping arc to the inner knee. One can see this curve in the developed legs of athletes.
In the side view, the thigh is rounded in front and back. The calf of the lower leg is also round but the front shinbone which is mostly exposed makes the lower front part of the leg somewhat flat.
Modeling the Leg Steps
Step 1 (Figure 6-27). Similarly to the arm there is no need to model both legs at the same time. If you have not done so already, split the polygon at the base of the groin in half. Select one of these two polygons and bevel it all the way down to the bottom of the foot.
Step 2 (Figure 6-27). Cut across the polygons of the leg in a horizontal direction. It is important to slice through the middle of the knee as well as above and below it. Give the leg its overall shape by pushing and pulling points.
Step 3 (Figure 6-27). Model the knee and the back of that joint. Spend some more time refining the shape of the leg.
Step 4 (Figure 6-28). Mirror duplicate the leg and weld or merge points to attach it to the other side of the body.
Modeling the Foot Steps
When you model the foot it is important to pay attention to its skeletal structure (Figure 6-29). Most of the muscles in the foot are either between or underneath the bones. Therefore, their influence on the shape of the foot is not as great as that of the bones.
Step 1 (Figure 6-30). Select the polygons at the front of the foot and merge them into one.
Step 2 (Figure 6-30). Bevel the front foot polygon forward to where the toes will begin. Give it a rough shape.
Step 3 (Figure 6-30). Split the front foot polygon into 5 sections for the toes.
Step 4 (Figure 6-30). Bevel out the toes.
Step 5 (Figure 6-30). Slice across the toes to split them into sections at the joints and the beginning of the toenail. Pull and push points to refine the shape of the toes.
Step 6 (Figure 6-30). Begin the toenail by selecting the top front polygon of the large toe.
Step 7 (Figure 6-30). Bevel the toenail polygon down and make it somewhat smaller.
Step 8 (Figure 6-30). Bevel the toenail polygon up and scale it larger.
Step 9 (Figure 6-30). Slice across the middle of the toenail and through the toe itself. Move points to finish the toe. Follow the same steps to make toenails for the other 4 toes. It is important to also slice across the top of the toes the same way as the fingers and thumb. The extra lines are then used to pull points up in order to make the toes more round.
Step 10 (Figure 6-31). Finish the work on the foot by improving its shape. You will most likely have to split some of the larger polygons.
Step 11 (Figure 6-32). Mirror duplicate the completed foot and attach it to the other leg. Bend the arms and legs so they will deform better during animation.
Except for some details this completes the nude figure. In the future, rather than starting from a box again, you may decide to just use this model as a base. You should find it easier to reshape a completed model into other ones with different proportions. Be sure to make the facial morph targets (chapter 11) before you do this. It will save a lot of time because you will not have to model new ones for the next figure. Of course, if the face has a radical makeover, you will have to adjust some of the morphs.
"Completing the Human Figure, chapter 7"