Modeling Human Anatomy (C4D) Chapter 1
The ear is one of the most complex parts of the face to model. We can make it easier to do though by using the Extrude Edge technique. First create an object plane in the Attributes window. Make the plane to 4 x 10 cm. Set the Width and Height Segments to 1 and the Orientation to Z (Fig.01a). After doing this make the object editable by pressing "C". Use the perspective view to switch between the front and back views. Select the lower and higher edges and extrude them with the Extrude tool. Create new polygons to form the profile of the entire ear (Fig.01b). Use the Bridge tool to close the mesh (Fig.01c). You should end up with something like Fig.01d.
Continue to extrude the edges to create a path for the inside of the ear (Fig.02a). With the Bridge tool, connect the external mesh with the newly created mesh (Fig.02b). By following these steps you should have created the basic shape of the ear (Fig.02c). Remember the number of edges on the inside must match the number on the outside edge.
With the Bridge tool connect the edges between the paths to close all the gaps in the inner ear (Fig.03a). It might help to use the Knife tool (K) by adding cuts to simplify the bridges (Fig.03b - 03c). By doing this you will get the entire closed shape of the ear, including all its loops, which will mean you will get the volumes anatomically correct (Fig.03d).
Select the polygons located next to the ear canal. With the Extrude Inner tool (I) create an internal division of the polygons (Fig.04a). Move the points in the mesh just created to give it a more circular shape. When you have done this delete the polygon located in the middle. Next select the Knife tool (K) in Line-in mode and divide the polygons created earlier to create the outline of the ear (Fig.04b). Select the outside edges of the ear, leaving inactive ones located where the ear meets the face (Fig.04c). Switch to Perspective mode and, with the Extrude tool, give volume to the outside of the ear (Fig.04d).
Now you can start creating the shape of the inside of the ear. Push some of the polys along the Z axis, as you can see in Fig.05a. You can see the type of shape you are trying to achieve in Fig.05b. The next step is to select the points on the auditory canal and move them along the Z axis to create the cone shape of the hole in the ear (Fig.05c). Again at this point I suggest using the Knife tool and increasing the amount of polygons at the top of the ear (Fig.05d).
Now create the mesh of the ear using the Hyper Nurbs tool. When you have done this you can continue to make changes whilst viewing the object smooth (Fig.06a). Select the inner edge of the ear, at the point where the ear is opposite the temple, and move it towards the inside of the ear (Fig.06b). Now select the top inner edge that you previously created in Fig.05d and push it along the Z axis, creating the inner zone, which should be a Y shape (Fig.06c). Next select the bottom edge of the inner ear and move them inward to create an S shape (Fig.06d).
Select the edge that would be nearest to the cheek and push it towards the inside of the ear. Once you are happy with the shape and volume, push the lower edge of the auditory canal down (Fig.07a). Push the section next to the ear canal along the X axis in the direction of the cheek using the Brush tool (Fig.07b). Go to Smooth mode and use the tool with a Radius of 8 cm and 10% Strength, and relax the mesh in the middle part of the ear (Fig.07c).
Select the edges to the center of the ear and push them along the X axis; as you can see in Fig.08a, this should emphasize the Y shape we made earlier.
Now is the time to smooth the mesh. Select the Knife tool and on the upper right side of the ear, cut from the edge inward. By doing this you will create polygons in areas which at one point only had six edges (Fig.08b). By creating these cuts you will notice that you create two polygons and four triangles. Select the edge to the center of the polygons, click the right mouse button and select "Dissolve" (Fig.08c) thus removing the excess edges. Now select the new external points previously created and push out the ear, restoring a smoother curve (Fig.08d).
Next select the outer edge of the ear and extrude it inwards to give volume to the ear (Fig.09a). With the Knife tool, add a row of edge splitting polygons as you can see in Fig.09b, always extruding the outer edge. Then create the area that you are going to attach to the skull. Here you can also add a cut to highlight the two newly created volumes (Fig.09c).
At this stage, emphasize the volumes previously created (Fig.10a). Using the Magnet tool, push the volumes at the top of the ear outwards and those at the center of the ear inwards (Fig.10b). Now go to the front view and, using the Magnet tool, move the upper of the ear to give it a natural and realistic shape (Fig.10c). Finally select the corresponding edge at the base of the face and extrude them. You can use this edge to sew the ears to the face.