Railway Station

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Railway Station: Building 3D Models Using AutoCAD and 3D Studio Max

This tutorial will be useful for all of you who are trying to create a 3d model from a real model pursuing to have precise measurements. Our approach will be to create a model of a railway station. So here are 2 photos of the mentioned station.
 

Front and back perspective photos

This tutorial will be useful for all of you who are trying to create a 3d model from a real model pursuing to have precise measurements. Our approach will be to create a model of a railway station. So here are 2 photos of the mentioned station.

measuring tool

Drawing in AutoCAD

After measuring comes the time to draw the different orthographic views in AutoCAD. It is good also to dimension all the parts to be sure that we have drawn them correctly. When working with AutoCAD, keep on mind that closed splines should be easily extruded in 3D Studio Max. As much as precise you will be in AutoCAD as little reediting of the splines you will need in 3D Studio Max. I am a new user of AutoCAD, so be merciful and patient when using my *.dwg. It needs some postproduction, but it was more efficient for me to do it in 3D Studio Max.

AutoCAD Orthographic views views.zip, and file autocad.zip



Work in 3D Studio Max
a. Import *.dwg file
b. Completely replace current scene
c. Set AutoCAD DWG file Window as shown below.

Fine-tuning the Splines
a. Select all groups, open them, select all splines and convert them to editable spline (this will correct the bounding boxes of the splines) then close the groups
b. Hide all the groups except one and do the next with all of them
c. Some post process of splines is necessary - attaching belonging parts, welding overlaying vertices and etc.

Hint: Attach the splines for windows and window shutter, this should avoid you from some Boolean operations after extruding the splines

From Splines to Model
a. Extrude the main walls
b. Extrude the details, windows and doors
c. Duplicate the windows and doors, hide duplicates
d. Split objects using boolean / split (results of subtraction was not always as desirable)
e. Delete unnecessary polys, remove unnecessary edges and points
f. Move and detach the windows polys
g. Extrude holes
h. Unhide and fit hidden duplicates of doors and windows
i. Detach and Attach polys to different object corresponding to same materials
j. Assign materials
k. Render

Modeling Animation

And after all of this we have a precise 3D model of railway station.

Front and back perspective renders

(Front And Back Perspective Renders)

Railway Station model.zip

Railway Station: Making Textures Using Photoshop

The second part of this tutorial is about making realistic textures. I will show you how to make some textures in Photoshop using layers, masks and different blending styles.

It's time to make a break. Just go out on the street, look around, keep your eyes open and if you see a perfect clean surface, without dirt, and marks of time, run as fast as you can back home send me an e-mail, and I will come to look at it. Nothing in world is perfect, so worst and older something looks, it appears more realistic in CG.

Ok, but let's start to work.

First lets make a stonewall texture with watermarks and some moss in Photoshop.

1. open the basic texture, the wall

2. add a second layer, the moss, we will use it create the water marks

3. add a mask to the second layer

4. change the blending to Screen, and we have some watermarks on the wall.

5. add a third layer, the moss again, nut now we will use it for moss :-)

6. add a mask to this layer

7. change the blending to Overlay

8. make selection from the mask of the third layer, hold ctrl + left-click into the mask thumbnail in layers



9. add Hue/Saturation adjustment layer using this selection decrease hue and lightness, increase Saturation (this will dim the colors)

10. use the same selection and add color balance adjustment layer increase the amount of green (this will balance the color to green)

Finally we have the stonewall texture with watermarks and moss.

I used this texture and some of its modification for the stairs and the pedestal

HINT: Take 10 minutes and try to experiment with different blending options and layer adjustments to become familiar how they are working

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Railway Station: Texturing Using 3D Studio Max

In the third part I will show you how to use UVWs, where to paint a dirt map for the walls, and finally how to composite the material for the wall in 3d studio max.

Add an Unwrap UVW modifier to the part of the building (to the walls), select all faces, open the edit dialog, choose unfold mapping and choose walk to closest face option. Than select the different faces, or parts of the walls and move them to get a nice unfold mapping as shown below
 

Unfold UVW Mapping

Unfold UVW Mapping

Make a print-screen of the UVW edit window, and open it in Photoshop. Set the transparency of the layer to 50% and you can start to add dirt masks to this picture. I used 4 different dirt maps, in the areas bellow the windows, below the roof parts, and some over the ground.

UVW with dirt layers

UVW with dirt layers

After you are satisfied with the results, turn of the uvw layer, save the image and you have ready a dirt mask

Final dirt mask

Final dirt mask

You can assign these maps, one by one as you create them, to the walls. And you will see in 3ds max, if the dirt masks are on the correct position and fits well

Create a blend material for the wall. It will be a blended using these four different materials.

Using different amount of mixing, different tilling, and changing the output controls for the maps we can get a material like
this one.

 
Don't forget that the first material represents the dirt material for the whole building. You can see a small pattern, which will dissapear, when applied to the walls. This is caused by high number of tilling necessary for some maps.

Texturing Animation

Front And Back Perspective Renders of Textured Building

If you would like to know more about the scene here you can find some statistics:

Model: 3119 Polys
Textures: High resolution
- 4096x4096 dirt map for walls (We could come up with a smaller resolution too, but I was preparing it for some next renderings)
- 1500x1500 HDRI map for windows

Low resolution 512x512 and lower, maps and bump maps

- 16 3d total with changed resolution
- 2 others ( Try to guess which ones ( it is a map with bump map ))

Lighting: Skylight (default)

I hope you have found some useful points, in this tutorial, it's my first one, and hopefully not the last one. I learned a lot, I suggest to all of you to sit down and try to write your own tutorial, you will see how much you can learn.

That all folks, for today. Do not hesitate to write me an email, if you don't understand something.

Special thanks go to all who created the 3d total textures. It was pleasure to use these collections for texturing, and I enjoyed it very much. Great job guys.

Best wishes,
Jozef ZAJAC

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