Fig. 6-17 Steps 11 and 12. 11). Dividing the polygons at the lower abdomen and pushing/pulling points below the navel. 12). Splitting polygons at the back of the pelvis. Points are moved to shape the buttocks, hips, and the two dimples of the pelvic crest.
Step 11 (Figure 6-17). The front of the lower section of the torso should now be split into smaller polygons. Push and pull points to make the shape of the hips, the plateau of the navel and abdomen which are mostly covered with fat, the pubic arch, and the slight hollow where the upper legs join the torso.
Step 12 (Figure 6-17). Model the back of the lower torso. Divide polygons and move points to shape the buttock and the dimple at the pelvic crest. After making sure that the points at the seam are on the 0 x axis. Mirror duplicate the half torso. The points along the 0 x axis and base of the neck should merge. With Symmetry on continue shaping the buttocks. You need to have both halves of the torso visible in order to model this part correctly.
Fig. 6-18 The female torso in low polygon mode.
Fig. 6-19 The female torso in subdivision mode.
Figures 6-18 and 6-19 show the finished torso in low polygon and subdivision mode.
Modeling the Arms
The most maneuverable part of the body is the arm. The combined movements of the shoulder girdle, hand, and fingers create an almost unlimited mobility.
The Bones of the Arm
Fig. 6-20 Front and back views of the arm bones.
The arm has a similar combination of bones to the leg; one on top and two on the bottom (Figure 6- 20). The most common places where the skeleton of the arm becomes visible on the skin surface are at the top of the arm bone where it meets the collarbone, elbow, wrist joint, and the knuckles.
Unlike the legs, the arms are not built to support the body. Therefore, their bones are slender and their joints are capable of the widest range of motions possible. The ball and socket joint at the shoulder gives the arm the potential to rotate in any direction. The hinge joint at the elbow revolves the lower arm forward. Another hinge joint at the wrist rotates the hand in any direction. One of the forearms can cross the other allowing the hand even greater mobility.
The Muscles of the Arm
Fig. 6-21 Views of the arm muscles.
Four main groups form the arm muscles. Two of these are in the upper arm. They control the hinge joint of the elbow. When the arm hangs at the side they can be seen at the front and back (Figure 6- 21).
Two muscles of the top front group connect to the forearm and control its forward rotation. The back group of muscles appear as one when the arm is in a relaxed state.
The two groups of forearm muscles operate the wrist joint. Their actions are very intricate because they also twist the forearm and move the fingers.
The muscles in the hands do not influence the shape of the fingers and thumb as much as the skeleton does. Therefore, when modeling the hand, it is important to pay attention to its skeletal form.